Design Theories class_Oct 2001  

Functionalism vs. Planned Obsolescence,
A comparative study of German & American Design.

A single comparison between German and American design is complicated. Therefore, I chose the four different areas of comparison that I have chosen for this paper include automobile, product design, education systems, and social and political characteristics. By discovering as many perspectives as possible, my point of view may be established.

First, I chose to compare the automobiles from both countries. Automobile design has had a tremendous impact on this nation's economy. For example, the money that's been pumped through the American economy during the past century just in the sales of new automobiles has been unbelievable. Imagine how the owner saw himself or herself driving and owning that particular make and model. Survey after survey has shown that style outranks all other considerations as the prime motivator of most new-car purchase decisions. Style as one simple and complex factor, includes the overall shape, ornamentation and resulting aura of any automobile. The year of 1927 is a really important year in America design. General Motors (GM) Alfred Sloan hired H. Earl to establish an independent modern design consultant. The first industrial design system in America was also the first in-house design department called color and style. Therefore, a trend was formed, which lead to the marketing economy, consumption, and the fundamentals of American design industry. Consumerism is the primary characteristic of America. The car industry in America has made revolutionary systems that lower the cost of making cars. Thses systems include assembling line manufacturing, standardization, and scientific management. These three systems changed American manufacturing forever. It created the business competition between Ford and GM, America's first step towards the modern movement.

The American car has several characteristic features regarding size and shape. In my point of view, America's landscape is horizontal and large, which has influenced the corporation to build mostly large, gas-guzzling, but relatively comfortable cars (such as Chrysler 1975 Imperial) which shows many characteristics of American. Lately, most cars have adapted the organic shape in their design. The gas-guzzling car was the first mistake the American automobile industries could make because of the increasing gas price. The second mistake that the American automobile industries made was to produce and purchase the Sport Utility Vehicles (SUV). For instance, SUVs represent a paradox to consumers; television advertisements present SUVs as a vehicle of returning to nature, yet the cars actually accelerate existing environmental problems. Commercials often depict happy families driving on mountain roads, avoiding falling rocks and enjoying the flowered wilderness in leather-seated comfort. The sad truth is that these vehicles are contributing to the destruction of our natural resources. As Newsweek journalist Keith Naughton and Harper's magazine journalist Paul Roberts said, in reality, only five percent of all SUVs are ever taken off-road, and the vast majority of these vehicles are used for everyday driving. And there are a lot of them on the roads. In 1985, SUVs accounted for only 2 percent of new vehicle sales. SUVs now account for one in four new vehicles sold, and sales continue to climb. Today, the demographics of an SUVs buyer are quite different because not many people are buying SUV for their needs for the working environment. The SUV has become a hip thing and as a result, many consumers buy SUV, rather than sedans. Driving an SUV has a much greater impact on the environment than driving a sedan. SUVs have a significant environmental impact in terms of global warming. According to the fuel economy government web site, choosing a vehicle that gets twenty five rather than twenty miles per gallon will prevent ten tons of CO2 from being released over the lifetime of your vehicle. Passenger cars and trucks account for about twenty percent of all U.S. CO2 emissions. Global warming is a real danger that cannot be ignored. However, automakers continue to build fuel-inefficient vehicles. The vehicles we drive are contributing to this problem, but automakers don't seem particularly concerned. It is important to note that SUVs are contributing to our dependence on imported oil. The more gasoline we use, the more oil we have to import from other countries. Currently, more than half of the oil we use is imported. Although people with their consumption for the nature-unfriendly vehicle sales will continue. Perhaps the best alternative to this is to ensure prospective vehicle purchasers are educated, and make to encourage them to make the most environmentally sound decisions. Automakers have made some baby steps, but they have so far been unwilling to make a serious effort to improve these vehicles. In 2000, Ford Motor Company announced plans to improve their SUV fleet fuel economy by twenty five percent by the year 2005. This is a great first step, and it shows that automakers are capable of improving their vehicles. It also shows that a concerned public can influence a company like Ford. This is why educated consumers must demand better vehicles.
However, the BMW automobile still is not the "everyman's car", even in this era of mass production, the quality of this car has something extraordinary about it. Some people are content with technical issues. Others are satisfied by aesthetic refinements. German car drivers are not afraid to demand both. They know that the separation of form and content can never result in a truly outstanding automobile. Technology and design in the German automobile manufacturing both speak the same language; a highly progressive, with a high quality, and purposeful. This is how the BMW has achieved the remarkable harmony of detail that characterizes it. Like its drivers, the BMW is unafraid to demand the best. In fact, most German-made cars have distinctive characteristics that allow the cars to remain solid, steady and fuel-efficient.

The second comparison is that of product design. German designer Dieter Rams who was the founding father of the system design, is concerned with architectural and environmental surroundings that will impact design. German deign is timeless, solid, simple yet functional. The "MR"chair- has a frame that is chrome plated or black lacquered tubular steel. The seat and backrest is full grain leather or woven cane, made by Mies Van der Rohe who started a modern design style. He chose the tubular steel because it was cheap. He belongs the second generation of modern design movement in Germany. Van der Rohe's aesthetic practice based on style without style; a functional and economical consideration of the low cost material. The technical component of this form allows equal functionalism in German. The technical aesthetic detail of Van der Rohe is "Less is more".
I chose an American design for the Aeron Chairs- it was a breakthrough when introduced in 1994. Its one-of-a-kind look has a broad range of seat height adjustments, which allow users to chose by sitting position. The tilt mechanism allows the body to pivot naturally and simultaneously gives a smooth and proper support from forward-leaning to reclining postures. Also, conforming to each person's shape. The material lets air pass through, adding to long-term comfort by preventing body heat and moisture. The tilt-tension adjustment lets the user easily control the resistance felt when leaning back- a posture favored by many computer users like myself. Ergonomically, functionally, and environmentally, it was a matter of creating a new signature shape. Biomorphic way of design was necessary because human form has no straight lines. Similarly, there is not one straight line to be found in this chair. According to Herman Miller, the pellicle, or transparency, of the chair was equally a deliberate design strategy in that its transparency symbolizes the free flow of air to the skin in the same way lace, window screens, and other permeable membranes permit the flow of air or light or moisture. The transparency of the chair as a visual element was in keeping with the idea of transparent architecture and technology, which Aeron pioneered in advance of Apple's transparent iMac computers. Transparency is a major design movement. Its purpose is to make technology less opaque. The benefit of this chair's adjustments is the ease of use. Tilt-tension and tilt-limiting adjustments accommodate for a wide range of sizes and personal preferences. Made largely of recycled materials, this chair is designed to last a long time, as parts that get the most wear are easily replaced and recycled which is well thought-out design.

The third comparison is that of Education systems. Among the most influential factors in the process were two schools in Germany: the Bauhaus and Ulm Institute of Design.
Bauhaus- the most important design school in the world opened from 1919 to 1933.

From 1925 to 1931 in Dessau is the most important period of the Bauhaus because they set the keystone of the architecture. Also, the Bauhaus tried to build a new markedly closer relationship between design, science, and technology that is not like a traditional styles.
The Bauhaus sprit was to create a social goal that is social engineering, functional, so design has to be useful and economical. The Bauhaus found the modern design education system. The students focused on teamwork, and built a foundation for the first time in the history of art education. The Bauhaus tradition transformed America, and influenced all art school by teaching social consequence. The Bauhaus believe the purpose of design education lies in social engineering. The first school started to design for lower social class.

The Bauhaus forged an alliance between art and industry, the aim of which was to create objects that were both attractive and affordable for the masses. The Bauhaus model also fostered the rise to prominence in America of industrial designers whose creations were intended to be machine made and mass produced.

The Ulm Institute of Design
Most important design school in Europe after the World War II opened in 1953. They to be continuity of the Bauhaus tradition. According to Lindinger, this school is spoken of not only in Europe but also among initiates in America, India, and Japan; and those initiates include not only architects, designers, motion picture makers, and graphic designers, but sometimes painter, musicians, and poets. Therefore, this school becomes a international aspirations to art educational system. The school aim was not only produce a highly qualified designer but to foster a critical, social and cultural awareness.

In Europe, a strong belief that architecture will change the world. this also started from design education. In America, this is done through practice. Also, based on some business, skill of rendering and presentation. They start to open business first which is market in the philosophy. Also, the America is made of marketing and the diversity makes all the possibilities. American is made of a corporate and enterprise culture. After Hitler shut down the Bauhaus in 1933, almost 500 Bauhaus teachers and alumni came to America as political refugees. This changed the fate of America's art education system. The Ulm school, "All designers today, even if they don't know where Ulm is, are somehow in the tradition of Ulm" (handout from class).

America is made of immigrants, and this makes the culture a melting pot. Americans have never been able to take information graphics with the same seriousness as the easily led northern Europeans. American design at its best is all about communicating, and doing so with pragmatism and humor. The common thread is wit, humor, parody, self-mockery and the lampooning of dogma and tradition. The heart of American design is anti-elitism and anti-ismists. This happens to be the finest aspect of our national personality. The roots of this anti-elitism lie in America's attitude of democracy; the one thing about the country that cannot be mocked. Democracy and immigration are the key links in this landscape. Marketing and engineering considerations still dominate manufacturers decision-making processes. Products must be designed to be efficiently made in the factory and profitable in the market. This pragmatic approach is very deep in the corporate culture and has a great impact on design decisions. The founding fathers of American design inculcated the notion that the future of the profession lies in cooperation with the manufacturing industry. As the world getting more complex, it demanded greater specialization. This led to gradual design segmentation. Global market conditions within the very borders of the U.S. The resultant absence of a 'nationalistic' cultural design identity, in the strict sense, is therefore understandable. Americans never have seen that seemingly obvious pragmatic axioms of design, such as generous draft angles and coarse textures to hide blemishes, are often detrimental to product aesthetics.

The last comparison is that of the social characteristic of design. German design starts modernism in 1920-30s. (But in America, there was no modern movement) Modernism is democracy, socialism, and design for everyone, helping people. Functional consideration. Modern design can be divided by three elements; function, technology, and form. In ancient period, form was the first concern, but in modern design, it's the last concern. Concept and ideology are the key points in Europe modern design. In U.S, practice is a priority. "The best manufactures do not only have the cultural confidence to employ and trust product designers; they also have the industrial wherewithal to ensure that the results of their endeavors will be solidly built and reliable in use. German design firms, for their part, tend to be more strongly rooted in the real world than other countries; more of their work goes into production, and less is done with recreational or polemical intent. This corporate era want more choice, more speed, and more consumption these are the ingredients of progress and addiction. And the technology implies a new sense of power but total control is double-edged sword. Economical solution for low cost was the only solution in Germany. But, economical cost becomes a way of being trendy, style, and fashion in America. In Germany, majority of class was a working poor people. So, design has to be economical and functional. Low cost can serving for everybody become economic considerism. In America, majority of class was mid-income people; so less is more become a style, fashion, and trend. As a result, Functional concern which is the keystone of German design. (inter-relation) and Social consequences (practical for the social impact). Durable and last longer, save material, save energy. Social engineering, it benefits for the people. Design principles of Europe established before war at Bauhaus and after war at Ulm and Braun. The Ulm and Braun- possibilities of system design, economic consideration, and functionalism. German design symbolizes a good and solid design. Based on rationalism. Less trendy and try to be clam which it shows a steadiness. Inter-relation is the character of German design. Economic consideration which is the central character of German modernism, less is more became a style (but in America the style rather than meaning).
On the other hand, the American design is trendy and stylish based on consumerism. Mass produced, commercial enterprise, marketing promotion. Major difference is the characters of people. The largest consumer nation in the world that tells a marketing power because of they changes cost easily and quick. Diverse cultures, their creativity and ingenuity into ubiquitous sameness, and to produce a consumerism stemming from the 'free' market so rapacious that it threatens the entire world. One of the strengths of American Design in the Twentieth Century is that it is no mere paean of admiration for the diversity and excellence of American design, but a challenging analysis of the hidden agenda behind much design and so many products. Brand loyalty for many Americans became as important as political or religious affiliation. To buy a new kettle could almost signify a new you. In American design an individuality is the key.

In conclusion, design is communication. The most urgent task of design is to give form to ideas, information and technical developments. In addition to make the responsibility of design is to make more perceptible to our five senses. This process demands question communication. Design is the one of the most significant ways in which we shape our world. The products that surround us provide an instant cultural history, a mirror in which our own preoccupations are vividly reflected.

German and American design have been successful in the ways of the problem solving. However, German design is heavily influenced by social and political methods.
In our mass-produced world, we are crying out for difference, and for a culture that reflects our individuality. Everything concentrates around culture in its many aspects from high culture to subculture. And while it may sometimes seem that the global market we inhabit is the irresistible force that shapes our future selves, we should not underestimate our influence in shaping the world and its product. Design is the solving problems between human beings and goods for better communication. I think that design should offer better solutions to humanity even though most of it is not glamorous or pretty. Cultural history and diversity makes design a continuing and relevant challenge. Therefore, designers must prepare for the global era with a global perspective

1. David Redhead. Products of our time. Birkhauser Publishers for Architecture, 2000.
2. Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency.
3. Herbert Lindinger. Ulm Design: The morality of objects, The MIT Press, 1990.
4. Herman Miller. Herman Miller Company.
5. Keith Naughton. Newsweek, “The Unstoppable SUV”, July 2, 2001.
6. Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends 1975 Through 2000.
7. Michael Lamn. A Century of Automotive Style: 100 years of American car design.
Lamn-Morada Publishing Company Inc. 1996.
8. Paul Roberts. Harper's Magazine, "Bad Sports", April 2001.
9. Hand out from class. German Design vs. American Design.

  Great Minds of Design_Nov 2001  

From the design of Getty Center to see influence of Le Corbusier
to Richard Meier's Architecture.

I am from Chicago where I have enjoyed the magnificent architectures so much, but since I moved to Los Angeles, I was disappointed by lack of wonderful architectures. I believe that I knew a lot about LA, however, I was wrong until I visited the Getty Center. Three hours of experiencing the Getty Center was inspiring. I was so surprised that I missed an important thing during I live in Los Angeles. The Getty Center means more than a museum to me. One of the reasons is that the Getty Center was unique is that the Getty Center was paid for completely by the Getty Foundation, there are no commercial messages anywhere. It was refreshing feeling to escape from the relentless placement of advertisements on everything. The other reason is that this museum is noting like any other typical museums I have ever been where were a huge buildings with lots of painting and sculptures. In The Getty Center, I feel like, I am in the other places.

To find the influence of Le Corbusier to Richard Meier's architectire in the Getty Center was not too hard. Because I can tell pretty much that most of structural aesthetics, materials and colors were influenced by Le Corbusier. I will describe all the details that the Getty Center has and describe the similarity between Le Corbusier and Richard Meier. Richard Meier's work has been influenced by Le Corbusier's earlier work that includes colorless, simple, geometric design for great efficiency and functionality. Until the Le Corbusier start to build the Pilgrimage Chapel of Ronchamps in 1955, I see the Le Corbusier's style in the Richard Meier's work. I think that the year of 1955 is the turning point to Le Corbusier changes his style to the brutalism.
As Harold M. Williams mentioned, the importance of the Getty projects lies in the ideas they contain that the process of making architecture is a continual one that must include one's entire body of work. In the making of space, there is always a concern for the way in which the public nature of a place is defined in human terms, and this means that there must always be an emphasis on the character of the whole. In responding to society's needs, one must be concerned with constructing a physical fabric that is equally durable, rational, and architecturally vibrant. As Richard Meier wrote in Kenneth Frampton and Joseph Rukwert book, the fourteen year involvement in the design and construction of the Getty Center being the most absorbing project from both a professional and a personal point of view.

The Getty Center is perched high on a hill overlooking LA, so I aboard a white automated tram for a few minutes to the top of the hill. There were seven buildings at The Getty center includes auditorium, The Getty Information Institute, The Getty Conservation Institute, The J. Paul Getty Museum, arrival plaza, Restaurant/Cafe, Centural Garden, and The Getty Research Institute for History of Art and the Humanities. Also, there are many important outdoor spaces. The straight lines of marble, the vertical columns and the entablatures parallel to the LA city's horizon. A circular kind of apse and concrete framework which the le Corbusier used at La Villa Blanche. Also, influenced by Le Corbusier's "Less is more" which all white marble and no unnecessary decorations (which is the beauty of machinery- Le Corbusier's term). The use of inexpensive and plain materials, such as glass, metal, and tiles, expressed the taste of Le Corbusier. Consisting of a steel structure covered in a solid sheet of glass, which make the neutralizing wall. The use of a metallic structural elements, including door and window frames, were to a great extent standardized and prefabricated, and glass was widely used.

Le Corbusier is the most influential architect of the twentieth century, Le Corbusier's works and ideas set the agenda for much modern architecture and planning, typified by global internationalism. A circular kind of apse and concrete framework which the le Corbusier used at La Villa Blanche. Besides the 'skillful', accurate and magnificent interplay of the volumes in the bright light. He hoped to discover the active force behind architecture. Reinforced concrete made it possible to do away with the traditional functions of the walls (supporting floors and ceilings and enclosing the built space). He tried to exploit this freedom as much as he could. Le Corbusier remained faithful to the reinforced concrete framework, columns and floors. He used variations of the Dom-ino system in many projects for mass produced housing. The basic unit of his Dom-ino system consists of three floors, six vertical columns and a staircase. To make the exterior walls free-standing, the supports are not at the edge and they join the horizontal surfaces smoothly, so that ceilings and walls can be perfectly smooth as well. Gradually he was able to evolve a concept of harmony, of architecture and of the function of the architect that diverged from the one he had been taught in La Chauxde Fonds. As Jenger mentioned in her book, a creative principle of his goal was to establish or re-establish harmony between people and their environment. For Le Corbusier concrete was as natural as stone. He had a highly developed feel for materials, looking for density, grain, roughness or smoothness. Le Corbusier who made the world aware that a new 'style' was coming into being through his work. He is the greatest impact on modern architecture worldwide.

According to the Hasan-Uddin Khan , in 1914 he produced the first sketches for his Dom-ino frame system, developed with the assistance of Max Dubois, for the grided reinforced concrete skeleton that allowed for free flowing plan layouts. Le Corbusier's architecture of geometry- the pure form of cubes, spheres, pyramids- was a rational ordering of space, which informed his concept of the machine for living in. He proclaimed in 1927 that he had produced a "fundamentally new aesthetic" through the use of five elements: the reinforced concrete pilotis (which took the place of a wall), the roof-garden or terrace on a flat-roof, the free plan, the horizontal strip windows ( according to Jean Jenger he used this method in Villa Savoye at Poissy in late 1920s), and the composition of the facade. He presented the conclusions reached over the years from the study of his projects, on the importance of reinforced concrete to the key elements of modern architecture; his analysis was deliberately schematic: Each element can be considered separately, but l is connected. The formulation of the five points, simple and almost dogmatic, is uncharacteristic of Le Corbusier's usually pragmatic and open approach to every new project. This five points sum up the principles underlying most of his constructions as far as the relationship between structure and form is concerned, and the opportunities offered to both by reinforced concrete. I found that the Richard Meier used these system into the Getty Center.

The museum sequence begins with a large, light filed rotunda that opens onto the centural courtyard. Once inside these open lobbies person becomes aware that the museum consists of two story pavilions. The openness of the museum is very important, in conjunction with the cross axis. All of the relationships between building and garden are important in creating The Getty Center have the solid and the void of the entry form of the museum, the courtyard of the library: the cross axis that runs from the museum garden to the scholar's building. All of the elements are part of a single body which is a sequence of spaces related one another both horizontally and vertically. The Getty brings together harmoniously the complex organization of spaces in a more fluid composition. Especially, I saw many Getty collections, paintings, sculptures, and photographs displaying from the top floor to take advantage of the natural top light. Natural light is filtered differently according to the character of the collections.

According to Yoshio Futogawa and Richard Meier's conversation, the way in which the spaces are organized: the manipulation of space in order to heighten people's perceptions. Which includes the use of natural light in a way intensifies the architectural experience, so that people can clearly understand the relationship of planner surfaces to linear elements, so that people can clearly perceive the difference between opacity and transparency, between the openness and closure that is being expressed in the building, that distinguishes the public form the private spaces. The sense of appropriateness expressed by the disposition of elements in relation to the whole and by the quality of light. The form, light , and openness to the exterior are the expressive of making spaces. According to Richard Meier, architecture is for the contemplation of the eyes and the mind, but no less importantly, it is to be experienced and savored by all the human senses, and synthesized by the mind.
It was really remarkable that the all the furniture, interior details their relationship to their surroundings. Especially chairs (include pictures on the back) were used same material which is maple wood and leather fabrics of natural color used in every chairs through out all the galleries and even at the automated tram station. The thing caught my attention besides the material and the great craftsmanship was the chair that has spaces for the flyer on the side. Of course, there were many magazine racks in the sitting area (include pictures on the back), however, this one is quiet unique approach. These characters of chair show the functional and minimal design aesthetics of Richard Meier.

The Restaurant/Cafe, where is easily reached from most parts of the buildings and its windows and terrace afford outstanding views of the mountains and the city view.
Water played an important role in uniting the man-made building with the natural environment. In the garden there are waterfalls, which is nice touch. Especially at nighttime, it was the most beautiful scene I have seen for such a long time (include pictures on the back-'outdoor' lower right side). Just hearing the water only gave me a lot to think about. The Getty Center has a various types of fountain to create different atmosphere, such as the simple fountains along with the Cafe's table to help people to relax and enjoy the great environment, the other fountains that located in front of gallery is quiet remarkable which made of rocks and creates a natural feelings. Not only use the rocks for the fountain but also made the wide angle stone chairs to makes it even more natural. Between the various buildings, both closed and open, provide for panoramic views of the surrounding landscape. He used new materials such as marble, glass, and steel. With this materials, he keep using the grid pattern 2"x2"square pattern. The Central Garden got my attention to see such as well-cared landscaping. Anni Chu, who is one of our environmental department teacher at art center. Her husband is an architect who used to work for the Getty Center project. According to what he said, he mentioned really interesting thing that Richard Meier wants to plant all the trees from his building 8" a part. Because he does not want to see the building covered by the trees, so the uninterrupted view can be enjoyed. I think, this shows so much ego and confidence of his work.

The similarity of the Getty Center and Le Corbusier's work.
Both architects style shows extremely straightforward and consistency and uniformity. It allows the organization of interior spaces is very carefully considered, as is the relationship between vertical and horizontal movement. Which the Le Corbusier liberates spaces, opening out one area into another, accentuating the sense of being able to see through the dwelling from one end to the other and admitting the maximum amount of sunlight plus view of trees. The open layout encourages an architectural stroll and a fluid reading of the architecture as it comes and goes— Flowing space by running rooms into one another, varying the height of ceilings, and emphasizing the horizontal, particularly with windows. The pilotis are arranged on a geometrical grid, pierced all round by a horizontal window. They carefully worked out in every detail; not only perfectly fitted to the site, efficient, accessible, with good acoustics but also variety of different arrangements. The Getty Center's entry comprises elements from classical monumental architecture couched in a thoroughly modern ensemble, containing a number of features typical of his style; free plan, pilotis, horizontal windows, terraces, and grid patterns.
The framework of columns and beams or columns and floors were similar. And most creative feature that I think was the nature that communicates such strength, purity, unity and diversity.

One significant thing that the Richard Meier was different from the Le Corbusier's failure is he concerned about people. Le Corbusier designed for specific sized (6"male) person, however, Richard Meier solved that problems, for instance, all the door handle designed below waist which is easy to reach to anybody. Actually, I tried myself (include pictures on the back) and I saw many children can reach the handle to open door. Also, there was handicap access the way of the garden that is the evidence of his concerned about people.
In my point of view, there is one failure in the Getty Center which is the use of staircase, which made me to use muscle which I normally do not use daily. This staircase is great for short distance, but definitely not for a few minutes of walking. Because people are too familiar with 6"staircase.

In conclusion, the use of balancing between symmetric and asymmetric rhythms was great success. All the buildings were pretty much same height, so I felt well balanced.
People seem like they are enjoying the architecture environment which is a great American modern architecture itself rather than the exhibitions at the museum. I have got heightened aesthetic experience during I visited the Getty Center which I will never forget. I think that the Richard Meier is the only person who perfected the Le Corbusier's idea through his work.

1. Harold M. Williams. The Getty Center: Design progress. The J.Paul Getty Trust. 1991.
2. Hasan-Uddin Khan. International style: Modernist Architecture from 1925 to 1965. Taschen. 1998.
3. Jean Jenger. Le Corbusier: Architect, painter, Poet. Thames and Hudson Ltd. 1993.
4. Kenneth Frampton & Joseph Rukwert. Richard Meier Architect 3. Rizzoli International Publications, INC. 1999.
5. Yoshio Futogawa. Richard Meier GA Document Extra 08. Takashi Yanai.

Friend of mine had a class with Annie Chu, one day she brought one of a marble stone sample from the Getty Center project to the class to show. One mountain in Italy was gone since the Getty Center was built. Because of the Getty Center used too much marble. Believe it or not!